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INSHA YA UCHUMAJI KARAFUU (21 Apr 2016)

Assalaam alaykum.
Tunakaribisha insha zinazoelezea shughuli za uchumaji karafuu.

JE, WAJUA? Morogoro ya awali ilifutwa na mafuriko?

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3 months 2 weeks ago - 3 months 2 weeks ago #2803 by
Na Mussa Ally Bwakila,
Zipo taarifa za kihistoria zinadokeza kuwa Morogoro ya awali ilifutwa na mafuriko.

Hata hivyo, udadisi wa Mwandishi toka kwa wazee waliosalia haujapata maelezo ya mdomo yenye kuonesha kufahamika kwa tukio hilo.
Ukweli unaoweza kuelezwa unabaki kuwa ule unaopatikana katika rejea ambazo si mashuhuri kwa walio wengi.
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Makala haya yanapitia rejea hizo zinazotazama historia ya uluguru zama hizo.

Kamanda wa jeshi la Kikoloni Bovil katka shajara zake anatazama uzuri wa milima ya Uluguru na kuufananisha na Milima ya Kashmir kwenye jimbo lenye utambulisho tata linalogombewa na Pakistan na India huku wakazi wake wakitaka liwe nchi huru.

Bovil anatazama na kutoa sifa kadhaa za Uluguru, kwa uoto wake wa asili, mabonde na miamba yake sanjari na urefu wake uliokisiwa miaka 100 nyuma kuwa ni futi 8,900 (japo ulipopimwa ulikuwa na futi 8,360 katika kilele cha Lukwangule).

“These highlands are extraordinary beauty, and have been compared to those of Kashmir, though lacking the floral luxuriance of the east. Great rocks crop out on the floors of the valleys as well as on the hill-sides; but nowhere does this ruggedness meet the eye, for the whole landscape is clothed in dense tropical vegetation, through which only an occasional gaunt peak rises above the general conformation of the hills. The rising sun turns the brilliant green of the virgin forest to a wonderful medley of soft shades of pink and mauve and violet; but during the heat of the day the height are enveloped in a veil of soften blue. To the south, where the greatest elevation is reached (Lukwangule, 8,900 feet), the Mountains rise to the 7,000 feet contour over a considerable area.” Rejea Bovill Diary Ukurasa wa 277-283.

Kwenye Milima hii kulikuwa na falme nane za Waluguru zenye koo kubwa 51 na koo ndogondogo takriban 800, kila moja ikiwa na mipaka yake ya kijigrafia, sharia na kanuni zake, japo zilifanana kwa lugha, tamaduni (mila na desturi) na kwa kiasi kikubwa hata mfumo wa uwendeshaji wake.

Katika tambarare ya milima hii, watawala wa Kiluguru walimkaribisha mgeni, kiongozi wa sehemu ya watu wa kabila la wazigua aliyejishughulisha na uwindaji kwenye eneo hili akiitwa Kisebengo, na wakakubaliana awe Kinga yao (ukiongo au Kingo) kwa kudhibiti njia ya kaskazini ya Milima ya Uluguru inayotoka Pwani kuelekea bara na kuwahakikishia usalama wakaazi wa falme za Kiluguru za ukanda huo.

Eneo la hivi sasa linaloanzia Msamvu Stendi kuelekea kaskazini yake yaani Mafisa, Kihonda Viwandani hadi Darajani (Mbuyuni) pamefunikwa mabaki ya mji wa mwanzo wa Morogoro uliosifiwa na wageni kwa uzuri wa mandhari yake, ubora wa majengo yake, na utaalam wa hali ya juu wa ujenzi wake na mpangilio wa mitaa yake!

Mji wa kwanza wa Morogoro uliasisiwa Ukoo wa Kingo Kisebengo na kuitwa ‘Mji wa Simbamweni’ ukiwa nje kidogo ya kivuli cha Milima ya Uluguru, ukionekana kama kisiwa kitulivu kilicho katikati ya mito miwili mikubwa (wakati huo), yaani Mto Morogoro na Mto Ngerengere.

Mji huo ulikuwa na mitaa iliyopangwa vema na Nyumba zilizojengwa kwa utaalam mkubwa kwa mawe na chokaa (kama yalivyo majengo ya kale unayoyaona hivi leo Pwani ya Tanzania au visiwani mwake yaani Kilwa Kisiwani, Mafia, Unguja na Pemba).

Kumbukumbu za ‘Gungulugwa’ wa Uhusiano wa Utawala wa Choma zilizoko kwenye shajara za Sayyiid (His Majesty) Lukwele Mdimang’ombe II (Lukwele Royal Diaries) zinaonesha kuwa, Majengo mengi ya Mji wa awali wa Morogoro yalijengwa kifahari (kuta za ndani, na sakafu zikiwemo za vyooni na bafuni zilipambwa kwa marumaru au mawe ya tarazo toka Matombo).

Nyingi ya nyumba za mji huo (ukiacha asilimia 25 ya nyumba za ghorofa) ziliezekwa vigae vyekundu vya udongo wa kuchoma; ama zile za ghorofa paa zake zilijengwa kwa mtindo wa makuba (domes).

Mji huo ulitaka kufanana kidogo na Kilwa Kisiwani ya kale au Zanzibar ya zamani, japo haukuwa na mitaa membamba kama ya Mji Mkongwe wa Unguja, bali ulipangiliwa sawasawa kama Kilosa ya zamani au Tanga ya kale (ambapo kulikuwa na taa za barabarani zilizotumia mafuta ya samaki kuwasha mienge yake usiku.

Morogoro hiyo ya awali ilikuwa ndani ya ngome (ukuta mpana wa kuwezesha askari mpanda farasi kupishana na mwenzake bila tatizo juu ya ukuta kama ulivyo ukuta mkuu wa China), wenye milango (mageti makubwa au malango ya mji yenye umbile la mraba) yaliyotengenezwa kwa mbao pana za miti ya mitiki iliyokuwa katika kila pembe ya ukuta mkuu wa mji; yaani mageti manne na geti la tano (dogo) lilikuwa upande wa kaskazini ilipotuwama Kasri la Sultan; yote ikilindwa na mabawabu.

Mageti hayo yalinakshiwa kwa mitindo ya Pwani iliyotawala wakati huo (kama uonavyo milango ya Zanzibar) yakiwa na maandishi yaliyoandikwa kwa usanii wa hali ya juu mno yanayoashiria wakazi wake kuomba ulinzi wa Mola wao Muumba kuulinda mji wao!

“He built his fortified capital near the caravan route and imposed heavy tolls on caravans going to Tabora” Rejea ‘GENERAL HISTORY OF AFRICA VI Uk. 248’. Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880’s (HAINNEMAN, CALFONIA, UNESCO).

Mmoja wa vitangulizi vya ukoloni yaani Henry Stanley yeye pia amebahatika kuuona mji huo, kwa upande wake anasema majengo yaliyokuwepo yana muundo wa Kiafrika (japo hakufafanua ni Afrika ipi kwani kila ukanda wa Afrika ulikuwa na mtindo wake wa ujenzi) hata hivyo ameyasifu nyumba hizo kuwa zimejengwa kwa mtindo bora wa ujenzi (“Best type of construction”).

Stanley anaeleza akiwa na msafara wake ukitokea Pwani (Bagamoyo) uliambaambaa kufuata bonde la Mto Ngerengere (kwa Kiswahili chake cha kizungu ameuita Ungeringeri) hadi kwenye mji Simbamweni uliojengwa watawala wa Kizigua (kina Kingo), akiukadiria kuwa na watu 3,000 hadi 5,000 na nyumba takriban 1,000.

Binti wa Sultan Kisebengo wa Wazigua (Sultana) ndiye aliyekuwa akishughulika na mambo ya utawala kwenye mji huo.

“Following the latitudinal valley of the Ungerengeri, within two hours on the following morning we passed close under the wall of the capital of Useguhha - Simbamwenni. The first view of the walled town at the western foot of the Uluguru mountains, with its fine valley abundantly beautiful, watered by two rivers, and several pellucid streams of water distilled by the dew and cloud-enriched heights around, was one that we did not anticipate to meet in Eastern Africa. . . . The town may contain a population of 3,000, having about 1,000 houses; being so densely crowded perhaps 5,000 would more closely approximate. The houses in the town are eminently African, but of the best type of construction. . . . The area of the town is about half a square mile, its plan being quadrangular. Well-built towers of stone guard each corner; four gates, one facing each cardinal point, and set half-way between the several towers, permit ingress and egress for its inhabitants. The gates are closed with solid square doors made of African teak, and carved with infinitesimally fine and complicated devices of the Arabs . . . The Sultana is the eldest daughter of the famous Kisabengo . . . . On its most desirable site, with the river flowing close under the walls, he built his capital, and called it Simbamwenni, which means ‘The Lion,’ or the strongest city.” Angalia Ukurasa wa 115-117 wa kitabu chake “How I Found Livingstone”.

Hata hivyo mafuriko makubwa ya mito miwili (gharika) yalikuja kuufuta mji huo katika sura ya Dunia na kupoteza maisha ya takriban nusu ya watu wake!

Baada ya hapo licha ya kuwepo mabaki machache ya makazi na mashamba, eneo hilo halikujengwa tena hadi baada ya miaka zaidi ya 100 baadaye Mji wa Mpya wa Morogoro ulipoanza kukuwa; wakaazi wakafanya mashamba kwenye maeneo hayo, na baadaye serikali ikajenga viwanda upande mmoja na kuruhusu makaazi ya watu upande wa pili.

Hakukuwa na jitihada zozote za kufukua mabaki ya Morogoro ya kale, wala hakukuwa na tahadhari ya kuhifadhi sehemu ya vielezeo vya mji huo wakati wa ujenzi mkubwa wa utitiri wa viwanda vilivyojengwa katika sehemu ya eneo ulipotuwama mji wa kale wa Simbamweni.

Katika kipindi ha baada ya mafuriko miaka ya 1880, wakaazi wa waliosalia baada ya mji wa Simbamweni kuhilikishwa wengi wao wakiwa ni Wazigua na Waluguru iliwalazimu baadhi kuhamia jirani na Mlima (Morogoro Mjini ya Hivi sasa) na baadhi kuhamia kwa Mtawala (Kingoluwira ya leo).

Ikumbukwe kuwa matukio hayo yote yametokea takriban miaka 15 hadi 20 tu kabla ya ukoloni kutamalaki ukanda huu; ambapo hapo kabla wakaazi wa Uluguru na pembezoni mwake karibu wote walijiongoza wenyewe kitamaduni, kisiasa, kiuchumi na kijeshi bila kuingiliwa na wageni wakiwemo wa Dola yenye ushawishi pwani ya Afrika ya mashariki wakati huyo ya Masultan wa Zanzibar (japo athari za kitamaduni na Dini ya Kiislamu, pamoja na kuenea kwa kasi lugha ya Kiarabu na Kiswahili vilichukuwa nafasi kubwa katika safu yote ya milima ya Uluguru na pembezoni mwake).

Hali ya mambo ilianza kubadilika kuanzia mwaka 1885 hadi 1890 pale watawala wa kijerumani walipoivamia Tanganyika, baada ya kuweka mikataba na Sultan kumuachia ukanda wa Pwani, na kuitwaa bara kimabavu; Wajerumani wakaweka mfumo wao wa kiutawala unaoendena tamaduni, mila na desturi zao za kimagharibi.

Wakalazimisha Waluguru, Wazigua na makabila mengine ya ukanda huu wa bara kufuata mfumo huo, sanjari na viongozi wa kizungu na sheria zao, huku wakizifuta baadhi ya sheria za tawala za kienyeji, na kuwaondoa madarakani na mamlakani machifu na wafalme wao na kuwaweka wawatakao, kufuta majeshi ya wenyeji na mfumo mzima wa siasa uliokuwepo kabla ya ukoloni.

Wakajenga makao ya utawala maarufu kama Maboma katika maeneo kadhaa, wakafungua vituo vya kijeshi, mahakama na shule zinazoendeshwa kwa mitalaa (mitaala) ya kizungu (inayoendelea hadi enzi hii ya taifa huru), pamoja na vituo vya dini zao, sanjari na magereza na polisi kusimamia sheria na kanuni walizowawekewa watawaliwa.

Ukanda wa Pwani ya Afrika Mashariki ulikuwa wa mwanzo kuupinga utawala huu wa kimabavu kwa njia ya vita, ambavyo vilisambaa hadi bara kwa wangoni na Wahehe chini ya mwavuli wa Majimaji vilivyozimwa kinyama mwaka 1906 baada ya kuanza mwaka mwaka 1905 na kuacha vifo vya waafrika zaidi ya 100,000 kwa uchache; vikigusa pia maeneo kadhaa ya Uluguru ikiwemo Mgeta, Choma, Ukami, Mikese, Matombo n.k.


Rejea:
1. E.W Bovill Diary (written while on service with Nigerian troops in East Africa). “Notes from East Africa: The Uluguru Mountains and the Rufiji Plain,” THE GEOGRAPHICAL JORNAL, L (1917).

2. ‘General History of Africa – Vi: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880’s’. Editor: J.F Ade Ajayi (HAINNEMAN, CALFONIA, UNESCO – The International Committee for Drafting General History of Africa).

3. “How I Found Livingstone: Travels, Adventures and Discoveries in Central Africa: Including an Account of Four Months Residence with Dr. Livingstone. New York: Scribner, Armstrong & Co., 1872”.

4. “H.M Lukwele Royal Diaries (1865 – 1880): Lukwele Royal Palace Archives, Choma - Uluguru, Morogoro”. Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

5. “Smoke in the Hills: Political Tension in the Morogoro District of Tanganyika”. By Young Roland and Fosbrooke Henry. [Northwestern University African Studies, Number 4.] (Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press. c. 1960.

6. “East Africa and Its invaders” R.Coupland, (1938).

7. The exploitation of East Africa (1939).

8. “The Hand book of Tanganyika” By J.P Moffet (1958).

9. “Tanganyika Notes and Records” XXVIII (1950).

10. “To the central Africa Lakes and Back” By Joseph Thomson (1881).

Kama una maswali, maoni au ushauri juu ya makala hii, waweza kuwasiliana na Mwandishi kwa Email. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.[/b
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Last edit: 3 months 2 weeks ago by .

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